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Saturday, October 7, 2017

न्यूटन



‘न्यूटन’ हा अमित मसुरकर ह्यांचा चित्रपट गाजतो आहे. ४० आंतरराष्ट्रीय चित्रपट प्रदर्शनात तो दाखविण्यात आला असून बर्लिनच्या प्रदर्शनात त्याला पारितोषिक मिळाले आहे .काल मी हा चित्रपट पाहिला तेव्हा ३०- ४० प्रेक्षक ही चित्रपटगृहात नव्हते ,
नक्षलवादी दशहतवाद ,छत्तीसगढच्या दाट जंगलातील आदिवासी लोकांचे जीवन , भयानक गरिबी , जुलूमजबरदस्ती ,  दशहतीमुळे सर्वत्र असलेले भीतीचे वातावरण , कायद्याचे नसलेले राज्य , नागरी सुविधांचा अभाव , त्यात आलेल्या निवडणुका , बुथवर जाण्यास  कोणीही तयार नाही अशी भितीजन्य परिस्थिती. असे असताना एक नितीमत्तेची चाड असणारा न्यूटनसारखा एक निवडणूक अधिकारी प्रयत्नांची पराकाष्टा करीत असतो.  त्याची ही गोष्ट .विषय वेगळा . नट नवे . आपल्या नागरी जीवनाची आणि लोकशाही व्यवस्थेची एक शोकांतिका . अशा निराशाजनक समाजव्यवस्थेत लोकशाही वाचविण्यासाठी घेण्यात येत असलेल्या निवडणुका . नेते , मोर्चे , घोषणाबाजी , सभा , मिडिया , निवडणूक अधिकाऱ्यांची परीक्षा हे सर्व काही आपण चित्रपटात पहात जातो. फारसे संवाद नाहीत . जे दाखविलं जातं ते खूप बोलकं असतं . अंतर्मुख करायला लावणारं . चित्रपट तसा खूप बोलका आहे . उत्तम चित्रण , सुरेख अभिनय. नर्म विनोद . मग दिग्दर्शक कुठे कमी पडलाय ? कथा कुठे कमी वाटतेय ? चित्रपट का परिणाम करीत नाही ? मला का आवडला नाही ?
नक्षलवाद म्हंटलं की पहिल्यांदा आठवतो तो महाराष्ट्रातील गडचिरोली जिल्हा . विदर्भ – तेलंगाना सीमाभाग . नक्षलवाद्यांनी माजवलेले थैमान . हिंसा . दशहत . आदिवासी लोकांचे हाल . ह्या भागात ड्युटीवर जाण्यास पोलीस आणि पोलीस अधिकारी धजत नसत . मंत्री – गृहमंत्री जे पोलीस अधिकारी त्यांच्या मर्जीत नाहीत त्यांना शिक्षा म्हणून ह्या भागात ड्युटीवर पाठवित असत . अशाच एका तडफदार पोलीस अधिकार्याची एकदा भेट झाली. तेव्हा गप्पा मारताना त्यांच्या कठीण जीवनाची संपूर्ण कल्पना आली. हे सर्व  तसे “ न्यूटन"च होते . जीवावर उदार होऊन नक्षलवादाशी लढत होते. हे पोलीस अधिकारी असोत की सुरक्षादलाचे आपले सैनिक असोत. त्यांचे जगणे आपल्याला त्या दशहतवादी हिंसेपासून दूर ठेवते म्हणून आपण सुखाने जगतो. नेमक्या ह्या आणि अशा लोकांच्या विषयी आपल्या मनात थोडेसे किल्मिष निर्माण करणारा हा चित्रपट मला आवडला नाही . येथेच दिग्दर्शक कमी पडला .
कथा , कादंबरी किंवा चित्रपट ह्या कलाकृतीतून आपल्याला वास्तवता आणि कल्पनासृष्टी ह्या दोन्हींचा संगम पहायला मिळत असतो. कलाकृतीतून दिसणारी वास्तवता आपण आपल्यात आणि आपल्या आजूबाजूच्या विश्वात पहात असतो. कधीकधी ती आवडू लागते . साहित्यिक / सिने दिग्दर्शक कलाकृतीची उत्सुकता वाढविण्यासाठी वास्तवतेपासून दूर जातात . त्यांची एखाद्या विचारसरणीशी बांधिलकी असते आणि ते त्या विचारसरणीचा आधार घेऊन कलाकृती बदलून टाकतात आणि त्यांच्या कलाकृतीतून आपल्याला वेगळाच संदेश देऊ पहातात . हा चित्रपट पहाताना असं तर झालं नाही ना?,  अशी दाट शंका येऊन जाते , तेथेच खटकते . त्यामुळेच नक्षलवादी दशहतवादाशी झगडणाऱ्या सुरक्षा अधिकार्याच्या केलेल्या विपर्यस्त चित्रणामुळे हा चित्रपट चुकीच्या दिशेने गेला आहे असे मला जाणवते . ते खटकते . चित्रपट तेथेच कमी पडतो. सद्यस्थितीत तो चुकीची बाजू दाखवितो आहे , असे प्रकर्षाने जाणवते .
नक्षलवादी पार्श्वभूमीवर लिहिलेली झुम्पा लाहिरी ह्यांची “ THE LOW LAND “ ही कादंबरी आठवते . ती कादंबरी पहिल्यांदा हा विषय हाताळीत होती. ती कादंबरी आवडून गेली . ह्या चळवळी संबंधी खूप काही सांगून गेली . मसूरकरांची ही कलाकृती नक्षलवादी दशहतीशी झगडणाऱ्या सुरक्षा यंत्रणेलाच कटघरात उभी करते, अशा यंत्रणेत असतील दोन चार माणसे . पण जो मेसेज द्यायचा आहे तोच चुकीचा आहे . ते विशेष खटकते . तेथेच चित्रपट उंचावर जाऊन खाली पडतो, “ न्यूटन” खूप हवेत . ह्यात वाद नाही .  

     

Friday, September 22, 2017

Hell - Heaven by Jhumpa Lahiri

कादंबरी वाचानाकडून लघुकथा वाचनाकडे केलेला प्रवास वेगळा असतो. लघुकथा वाचायला कमी  वेळ लागतो. कादंबरीचा आकार पसरट असल्यामुळे पानांची संख्या खूप असते . धावपळीच्या जगण्यात वेळ तसा कमी असतो आणि मग वाचन टप्प्याटप्प्याने करावे लागते . त्यामुळे मला लघुकथा हा प्रकार अधिक आवडतो.  महाविद्यालयीन जीवनात आम्हाला पांच लघुकथाकार हे पुस्तक होते . त्यातील अरविंद गोखले आणि वामन चोरघडे हे दोन कथाकार त्यावेळी खूप आवडून गेले. त्यानंतर अनेक कथाकार वाचत गेलो . नंतर कादंबरी वाचनाकडेही वळलो . दीर्घकथा हा प्रकार ही वाचत गेलो. दीर्घकथा हा प्रकार कमी पसरट असल्यामुळे  तो अधिक आवडत गेला .
 झुम्पा लहिरी ही खर्या अर्थाने वैश्विक कादंबरीकार . Namesake आणि The Low Land ह्या त्यांच्या दोन प्रसिद्ध कादंबरया वाचल्या होत्या . ह्याच लेखीकेचे Hell – Heaven हे  दीर्घकथा असलेले पुस्तक किंडलवर डाऊनलोड केलं आणि एका दमात वाचून टाकलं .  Frank O’  Connor International Story Award मिळवणारी ही कथाकार तशी कादंबरीकार म्हणून खूपच प्रसिद्ध आहे. तिच्या साहित्याचा आवाका मोठा आहे . तिच्या साहित्यातून एकाचवेळी बंगाली ( भारतीय ) आणि अमेरिकन जीवनाची ओळख होते.  तिच्या कथा – कादंबर्यातून NRI आणि अमेरिकन अशी दोन्ही पात्रे भेटतात . ही कथा लेखिका एका अमेरिकेत स्थाईक झालेल्या बंगाली कुटुंबातील आहे . त्यामुळे तिला दोन्ही संस्कृतीची चांगली ओळख आहे . भारतीय कुटुंबे अमेरिकेत स्थाईक झाल्यावर त्यांची दुसरी – तिसरी पिढी एका वेगळ्या तणावात जगत असते . त्याचेच चित्रण तिच्या साहित्यातून होत राहते . तिच्या साहित्यातून आपण प. बंगाल मधील शहरातून / खेड्यातून फिरून येतो आणि अमेरिकन जीवनातील विविध रूपे पहात जातो. ह्या दोन संस्कृतीतील फरकामुळे तेथील स्थाईक झालेल्या भारतीय  कुटुंबातील ताणतणाव आपल्या लक्षात येतात. ज्यांनी अमेरिकेत स्थाईक झालेल्या भारतीय कुटुंबाना जवळून पाहिलं आहे त्यांना हे साहित्य अधिक भावतं .

अशाच एका बंगाली दाम्पत्याची उषा नावाची मुलगी ही दीर्घकथा आपल्याला सांगत जाते. आपले आई-वडील भारतीय असल्यामुळे  वर्षानुवर्षाच्या सहवासाने एकत्र राहिल्यामुळे एकमेकावर सहज प्रेम करू लागतात हे ह्या मुलीच्या फार उशिरा लक्षात येतं, लहान असताना आई – वडिलांचा दुरावा तिच्या सहज लक्षात येतो आणि आपली आई त्यांच्या घरी येणाऱ्या वडिलांच्यापेक्षा खूप लहान असणाऱ्या एका बंगाली तरुणाच्या  प्रेमात कशी पडते , हे तिला लहान असतानाच  जाणवते. त्यांची प्रेम कहाणी ती आपल्याला सांगत जाते . तिचे वडील मात्र आपण संशोधनात गर्क असल्यामुळे आपल्या पत्नीला कोणीतरी कम्प्यानियन  मिळाला म्हणून त्या तरुणाकडे पहातात असे तिला जाणवते . माणूस आणि नाती तशी अगम्य आहेत. एकांडा पुरुष असाही असतो हेच ह्या कथेत दिसून येतं . पुढे हा तरुण एका अमेरिकन मुलीबरोबर लग्न करून संसार करू लागतो . इथे आपल्याला तेथील अमेरिकन जीवनाची ओळख होत जाते आणि त्या तरुणाला पुढे घटस्फोट घेऊन वेगळे जीवन कसे जगावे लागते ते ह्या कथेत चित्रित केलं आहे . एकाच वेळी हेल आणि हेवन असा दोन्हीचा अनुभव जगताना येणे हाच ह्या कथेचा आत्मा  आहे.  कथा खूप प्रवाही आहे . अमेरिकेत राहणाऱ्या भारतीय माणसांची घुसमट सांगणारी ही कथा आहे . शेवटी हे चांगले की ते चांगले असा प्रश्न उभा करते . हा अमेरिकेत स्थाईक झालेल्या भारतीय माणसांचा शोध खूप छान घेतला आहे .  

  

Monday, September 11, 2017

THE DRAMATIC DECADE


राजकारणातील घडामोडी आपण रोज वर्तमानपत्रातून वाचत असतो . पत्रकार त्यांच्याजवळच्या पुड्या सोडतच असतात . राजकीय विश्लेषक त्यांचे अभ्यासपूर्ण लेख छापतच असतात . अग्रलेखातून प्रतिक्रिया समजतच असतात . गप्पामध्ये राजकारणावर चर्चा चालूच असते .ह्या सर्वाहून अधिक स्फोटक असते ते राजकारणातील व्यक्तींचे चरित्र - आत्मचरित्र . पी व्ही नरसिंहराव ह्यांनी Insider ही कादंबरी लिहिली पण ते त्यांचे आत्मचरित्रच अधिक आहे . संजय बारू ह्यांनी डॉ मनमोहन सिंग ह्यांच्या सहवासातील क्षण टिपताना पंतप्रधानांचे राजकीय जीवन लोकांच्या पुढे आणले . ही दोन्ही पुस्तके राजकारणाची दशा आणि दिशा समजावून सांगणारी होती . प्रणव मुखर्जी ह्यांचे ' The Dramatic Decade ' हे पुस्तक हातात पडलं आणि वाचताना तो सर्व काळ आठवू लागला . आपलं ज्ञान वर्तमानपत्रातील माहितीवरचे . ह्या व्यक्तीने तर ते राजकीय जीवन जगलेलं . स्वतःचे अस्सल अनुभव . राजकारणाची गुंतागुंत पूर्ण माहित असलेली ही व्यक्ती राजकीय गुंता कसा सोडवायचा ह्यातच तद्न्य . राजकीय शक्तिकेंद्राची एक शक्ती . राजकारणात मानलेल्या नेतृत्वाला लॉयल असणारी आणि म्हणूनच प्रभावी असणारी व्यक्ती . रूढार्थाने तळागाळातून वर आलेली लोकप्रिय राजकीय व्यक्ती नव्हे . केवळ बुद्धी सामर्थ्यावर राजकारणात स्थिर असलेली ही राजकीय व्यक्ती . आत्मचरित्रात सगळंच काही लिहायचं नसतं .त्यामुळे ते वाचताना आपणच शोधून काढायचं असतं . नेमकं काय काय झालं असेल त्यावेळी ? दिल्लीच्या राजकारणात प्रदीर्घ काळ ज्यांनी घातला आहे त्यांच्या दृष्टिकोनातून आपल्याला बघायला मिळतं . हाच मोठा वाचन अनुभव . इंदिरा गांधी ह्यांच्याबद्दल अधिकरवाणीने दुसरा कोण सांगणार ? मोरारजी - चरणसिंग - जगजीवनराम ह्या त्रिकुटातील सत्तेतील भांडणे त्यांनीच जवळून पाहिलीत . जॉर्ज फर्नांडिस आणि मधू लिमये ह्यांनी जनता प्रयोग अयशस्वी करण्यासाठी कसा हातभार लावला . राजनारायण ह्यांनी संजय गांधींच्या बरोबर कसा संपर्क साधून जनता पार्टीत खिंडार पाडले . यशवंतराव आणि शरद पवार ह्यांच्या इंदिरा विरोधी राजकारणामुळेच काँग्रेसमध्ये फूट पडण्यास वेग आला पण त्यांना दिल्ली जिंकता आली नाही . देवराज उर्स ह्यांनी इंदिरा गांधी ह्यांना दक्षिणेतून विजय मिळवून दिला आणि त्यांना वाटू लागले की आपणच खरे नेते . शेवटी त्यांना राजकारणातून संपवण्यासाठी कसे प्रयत्न करावे लागले . हे सर्व वाचताना भारतीय राजकारण कसे चालते ह्याची झलक वाचायला मिळते . ही राजकीय मंडळी छोटी वाटू लागतात . शेवटी माणूस असाच असतो . सत्तेचे राजकारण असेच असते . नरसिंहराव ह्यांची 'इनसायडर' ही कादंबरी अधिक मनोरंजक झाली आहे . ह्या आत्मचरित्रातून व्यत्तिचित्रे मात्र अधिक ठळक दिसू लागतात . त्यातील खरं - खोटं मात्र शोधनं आवश्यक आहे . कारण लिहिणार्याची दृष्टी एकांगी असू शकते .
बंगालचे राजकारण स्वातंत्र्यापूर्वीपासून असेच होते . मुस्लिम अनुनय किंवा मुस्लिम वर्चस्व ह्या भोवतीच ते फिरत होते . प्रणव मुखर्जी ह्यांनी त्यांच्या आत्मचरित्रात त्यावेळच्या मुस्लिम राजकारणाचा सुंदर आढावा घेतला आहे . प्रणव मुखर्जी काँग्रेसच्या आधी बंगला काँग्रेसमध्ये होते . त्यांनी बंगालच्या राजकारणावर सविस्तर लिहिलं आहे . ते वाचलं की त्यावेळची काँग्रेस , मुस्लिम लीगचे राजकारण आणि बंगला देशची निर्मिती ह्यावर पूर्ण प्रकाश पडतो . मुस्लिम संख्या खूप अधिक असल्यामुळे ( त्यावेळी ४० % पेक्षा अधिक होती ) तेथील राजकारण कसे होते आणि आजही तसेच आहे ह्याची कल्पना येते .
सीपीएम असो का ममताचा पक्ष त्यांनी मुस्लिम अनुनय केल्यामुळेच आज ही परिस्थिती निर्माण झाली . काँग्रेसचा तर तो इतिहास होताच . काँग्रेसने मुस्लिमांचा कितीही अनुनय केला असला तरी काँग्रेसला तेव्हाही हिंदूंचा पक्ष असेच मुस्लिमांनी संबोधले .
भाजपच्या हिंदुत्ववादी राजकारणाला मुस्लिम अनुनय जबाबदार आहे . ते त्यांचे प्रतिक्रियावादी राजकारण आहे . त्यात चूक त्यांची नाही .
इतिहासकार गुहा ह्यांनी ' हिंदू पाकिस्तान ' असा नवा शब्द वापरून लोकांची दिशाभूल करून नवे राजकारण सुरु केलेले दिसते . हिंदू इंडिया / मुस्लिम इंडिया असे शब्द पूर्वी राजकारणात होतेच . ब्रिटिशांनी त्या शब्दांची पेरणी खुबीने केली होती . देशाच्या फाळणीचा इतिहास गुहा ह्यांना नीट माहित असेलच . आपले राष्ट्रपती प्रणव मुखर्जी ह्यांचे The Dramatic Decade ' हे आत्मचरित्र त्यांनी वाचले असेलच .
स्वातंत्र्यापूर्वी मुस्लिम मताला अधिक महत्व देऊन काँग्रेसने त्यावेळी बंगालमध्ये कसे राजकारण केले ह्याचा आढावा ह्या पुस्तकात दिला आहे . स्वातंत्र्यानंतरही जेथे जेथे मुस्लिम बहुसंख्या आहे (उदाहरणार्थ प बंगाल )तेथे मुस्लिमांचा अनुनय काँगेसने केला आहे . तेच सीपीएम आणि ममता दीदींच्या पक्षाने केले आहे .
आजचे' इंडिया' गुहा ह्यांना ' हिंदू पाकिस्तान' झाले आहे असे वाटते . त्याची काय कारणे आहेत हे गुहा ह्यांनी आपल्या इतिहासात शोधून काढावीत . लोकांची उगाच दिशाभूल करू नये . We must talk of only India , Not Hindu India or Muslim India or Hindu Pakistan.
प्रणव मुखर्जी ह्यांच्या आत्मचरित्रातील पुस्तकात ज्या ठिकाणी मुस्लिम बहुसंख्या आहे त्या प्रांतात राजकारणाची वळणं वेगळी असतात ह्याचा परामर्श त्यांनी घेतला . बंगाल , आसाम आणि पंजाब ह्या तीन प्रांताचा विशेष उल्लेख त्यांनी केला आहे . इंग्रजी राजवटीत प्रांतिक निवडणुका घेतल्या त्यावेळपासून त्यांनी आढावा घेतला . त्यावेळी मुस्लिम लिगचे जे राजकारण चालले होते त्या पुढे काँग्रेस Backfoot वरच होती . काँग्रेसला हिंदूंचा पक्षच मानले जात असे .
काँग्रेस मुस्लिम नेत्यांना पुढे करून इंग्रजांना आपण खरे प्रतिनिधी असे दाखविते म्हणून जिना त्यांच्या मुस्लिम लीगच्या प्रतिनिधी मंडळात एक दलित वर्गाचा प्रतिनिधी घेत असत .
त्या वेळच्या बंगालमध्ये मुस्लिम बहुसंख्य असल्यामुळेच पु .पाकिस्तानची निर्मिती झाली . एव्हढेच नव्हे तर कलकत्ता हे शहर पु .पाकिस्तानची राजधानी व्हावी ह्यासाठी मुस्लिम नेते प्रयत्नशील होते . सरतचंद्र बोस सारखे काँग्रेस नेते फझहूल गटाच्या जवळचे होते. सरदार पटेल ह्यांनी त्यांना चांगलेच फटकारले .नाहीतर कलकत्ता पु .पाकिस्तानची राजधानी झाली असती . 
बंगालची फाळणी व्हावी ह्यासाठी डॉ शामा प्रसाद मुखर्जी अनुकूल होते .कारण मुस्लिम बहुसंखेमुळे हिंदूंना सुरक्षीत वाटत नव्हते .
आजही मुस्लिम लोकसंखेमुळेच काँग्रेस किंवा ममताची टीएमसी ह्यांना मुस्लिम अनुनयामुळेच निवडणूक जिंकणे शक्य झाले आहे .सीपीएमची भूमिका तशीच आहे . 
मुस्लिम अनुनय ह्यावरच तेथील राजकारण चालते . 
शेख मुजिबर रहमान आणि बंगला देश निर्मिती ह्याचा आढावा घेताना बंगाली भाषिकांचा सबनॅशनलइझम कसा जन्माला आला ह्याचा इतिहास खूप काही सांगून जातो . 
काश्मीरचा प्रश्न अधिक गुंतागुंतीचा आहे , ते तेथील ९८ टक्के मुस्लिम संख्येमुळेच .



रस्किन बॉण्ड ......

रस्किन बॉण्ड ह्यांचे शैला सायनाकर ह्यांनी अनुवादित केलेले पुस्तक हातात घेतले आणि निखळ वाचनानुभव मिळाला. १८५७ चे इंग्रजांविरुद्धचे बंड ( युद्ध ) ह्यावरची ' कबुतरांची झेप ' ही दीर्घ कथा सर्वात उत्तम . शाम बेनेगल ह्यांनी ' जुनू ' हा चित्रपट त्यावर काढला होता . मी काही बघितला नव्हता . सुंदर असणार . कथाच सुरेख . त्या वेळच्या भारतीय मुसलमानांचे इंग्रजांविरुद्धच्या लढाईतील योगदान तसेच त्यावेळचा हिंदू - मुस्लिम सामाजिक तणाव. 
इंग्रज - युरोपिअन येथे आले . त्यांची इतर माणसे शासकीय आणि व्यापारी कामासाठी येथे स्थायिक झाली . त्यांची मानसिकता , त्यांचे कौटुंबिक प्रश्न आणि त्यांचे येथील भारतीयांशी न कळत जुळत गेलेले ऋणानुबंध ह्या साऱ्या गोष्टी ह्या लिखाणातून दिसून येतात . 


त्यांच्या दृष्टिकोनातून भारतीय समाज बघताना आपल्या समाजाचे आकलन तर होतेच पण युरोपिअन माणसांची अधिक ओळख होते. दोन - तीन संस्कृतींची सरमिसळ एकत्र पहायला मिळते . शेवटी माणूस तोच. वृत्ती त्याच. एक सुंदर वाचन अनुभव .

Thursday, September 7, 2017

विनोबा भावे : एक आठवण

विनोबा भावे ह्यांना ' राजकीय संत ' म्हणून बोलले जात असे ,ते पूर्ण चुकीचे होते . राजकीय नेत्यांना विनोबांची गरज भासत असे . विनोबांना राजकीय नेत्यांची काहीही गरज नव्हती . ते त्यांच्याकडे कधीच जात नसत . 
मला विनोबा भावे प्रिय आहेत ते त्यांच्या ' गीताई ' मुळे . ज्ञानोबा नंतर विनोबा . त्या दोघांनी मराठी भाषेला सम्रुद्ध केले . मी एकदा व्यवसायानिमित्त दिल्लीला गेलो होतो . एका राजस्थानातील उद्योगपतींना भेटायचे होते . बरोबर एका अमेरिकन कंपनीचा जर्मन मॅनेजर होता . अमेरिकेतील औद्योगिक प्रदर्शनात त्यांची भेट झाली होती . राजस्थानात अतिशय आधुनिक अशा सूतगिरण्यांचे ते मालक आहेत . अतिशय साधी राहणी . पूर्णपणे गांधीवादी . अतिशय बुद्धिमान . त्यांच्या केबिनमध्ये प्रवेश केला . पहिला धक्का बसला . त्यांच्या टेबलावर विनोबा भावे ह्यांचा फोटो होता . त्यांनी आमच्यासाठी चहा मागवला .स्वतः करिता गरम पाणी मागविले . चहा आला . आम्ही दोघे चहा तयार करीत होतो . पाहिजे तशी साखर टाकत होतो . त्यांनी त्यांच्या टेबलाच्या खणातून मधाची बाटली काढली आणि त्यांच्या कपात एक चमचा मध आणि गरम पाणी ओतले . मी गार . हा दुसरा धक्का .आमचा जर्मन मित्र माझ्याकडे बघत होता . आमची चर्चा सुरु होती . इतक्यात त्यांचा फोन घणघणला . ते हिंदीतून बोलत होते . फोन त्यावेळचे केंद्रीय मंत्री विद्याचरण शुक्ला ह्यांचा होता . हेवी वेट . दोघेही . त्यांनी फोन खाली ठेवला . ते माझ्याशी हिंदीतून बोलले . त्यांनी मला सांगितले की विनोबा भावे गेले . हा तिसरा धक्का. त्यावेळी इंदिराजी रशियाला गेल्या होत्या आणि त्यांना विनोबांच्या मृत्यूची बातमी मंत्र्यांनी सांगितली होती आणि त्या भारताकडे परतण्यासाठी निघाल्या होत्या .हा चौथा धक्का .ह्याचा अर्थ राजकारणी मंडळींना विनोबा असे प्रिय होते .ते उद्योगपती भूदान चळवळीमुळे विनोबांच्या जवळ होते . विचाराने सर्वोदयी होते . त्यानंतर आम्ही दुसरे दिवशी भेटण्याचे ठरविले . माझ्या बरोबरच्या जर्मन मित्राला हा सगळा प्रकार समजावून सांगताना मला बरेच कष्ट पडले .विनोबांच्यावर प्रेम करणारे , त्यांचे विचार निष्ठेने आचरणात आणणारे , साध्या राहणीचे , बुद्धिमान उद्योगपती मी जवळून पाहिले . हा पाचवा धक्का. आपल्याला विनोबा भावे समजले नाहीत हे आपले दुर्दैव . भूदान चळवळीचा दौरा करीत असताना विनोबा भावे औरंगाबादला आले होते . मी लहान होतो . त्यावेळी मी त्यांना पाहिले होते . त्यांचे भाषण ऐकले होते . फारसे समजले नाही . आजही ते आठवतात . गांधीजींना पहिला शिष्य विनोबा कसे मिळाले ह्याचे आज आश्चर्य वाटत नाही . हा खरा संत होता . 

Saturday, August 5, 2017

Michelangelo - An Artist who said , " I WILL DO WHAT I LIKE "


Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was a Florentine sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. He is considered as one of the greatest artists of all time.Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he was often considered a rival to Leonardo da Vinci .

He is the best-documented artist of the 16th century.
Here is a list of Michelangelo's great works – and where to find them – in Rome and the Vatican City.

Sistine Chapel Frescoes
In order to see the incredible frescoes that Michelangelo painted on the ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, we paid a visit to the Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) in Vatican City. Michelangelo painstakingly worked on these incredible images of scenes from the Old Testament and The Last Judgment from 1508-1512. The Sistine Chapel is the highlight of the Vatican Museums and it is located at the end of the tour.
he Sistine Chapel Ceiling (1508–12)

Michelangelo began painting with the later episodes in the narrative, the pictures including locational details and groups of figures, the Drunkenness of Noah being the first of this group. In the later compositions, painted after the initial scaffolding had been removed, Michelangelo made the figures larger. One of the central images, The Creation of Adam is one of the best known and most reproduced works in the history of art. The final panel, showing the Separation of Light from Darkness is the broadest in style and was painted in a single day.

As the model for the Creator, Michelangelo has depicted himself in the action of painting the ceiling.

VATICAN
Along the central section of the ceiling, Michelangelo depicted nine scenes from the Book of Genesis, the first book of the Bible. The pictures are organized into three groups of three alternating large and small panels.

The first group shows God creating the Heavens and the Earth.
The second group shows God creating the first man and woman, Adam and Eve, and their disobedience of God and consequent expulsion from the Garden of Eden where they have lived and where they walked with God.
The third group of three pictures shows the plight of Humanity and in particular the family of Noah.

The three sections of Creation, Downfall, and Fate of Humanity appear in reverse order, when read from the entrance of the chapel. However, each individual scene is painted to be viewed when looking toward the altar.
However, the three sections are generally described in the order of Biblical

Detail of the Face of God
The scenes, from the altar toward the main door, are ordered as follows:
1. The Separation of Light and Darkness
2. The Creation of the Sun, Moon and Earth
3. The Separation of Land and Water
4. The Creation of Adam
5. The Creation of Eve
6. The Temptation and Expulsion
7. The Sacrifice of Noah
8. The Great Flood
9. The Drunkenness of Noah

Of the first scene ! Michelangelo depicted God dividing Light from Darkness, showing him in all his majesty as he rests self-sustained with arms outstretched, in a revelation of love and creative power."
Adam and Eve

FAMOUS PIETA

The Pietà
This famous sculpture of the Virgin Mary holding her dying son in her arms is one of Michelangelo's most tender and refined works and it is located in Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. Michelangelo completed this sculpture in 1499 and it is a masterpiece of Renaissance art. Due to past attempts to vandalize the sculpture, the Pieta is located behind glass in a chapel to the right of the basilica entrance.

St Peter's Basilica

He sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. Despite holding a low opinion of painting, Michelangelo also created two of the most influential frescoes in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, and The Last Judgment on its altar wall.

St Peter's Basilica 

St Peter's Basilica

At the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan so that the western end was finished to his design, as was the dome, with some modification, after his death.

The attempts by subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelo's impassioned and highly personal style resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance.

In the year 1506, Pope Julius conceived a program to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The walls of the chapel had been decorated twenty years earlier. The lowest of three levels is painted to resemble draped hangings and was (and sometimes still is) hung on special occasions with the set of tapestries designed by Raphael. The middle level contains a complex scheme of frescoes illustrating the Life of Christ on the right side and the Life of Moses on the left side. It was carried out by some of the most renowned Renaissance painters.

The upper level of the walls contains the windows, between which are painted pairs of illusionistic niches with representations of the first thirty-two popes. A draft by Matteo d'Amelia indicates that the ceiling was painted blue like that of the Arena Chapel and decorated with gold stars, possibly representing the zodiacal constellations. It is probable that, because the chapel was the site of regular meetings and Masses of an elite body of officials known as the Papal Chapel who would observe the decorations and interpret their theological and temporal significance, it was Pope Julius' intention and expectation that the iconography of the ceiling was to be read with many layers of meaning.

Michelangelo, who was not primarily a painter but a sculptor, was reluctant to take on the work. Also, he was occupied with a very large sculptural commission for the pope's own tomb. The pope was adamant, leaving Michelangelo no choice but to accept. But a war with the French broke out, diverting the attention of the pope, and Michelangelo fled from Rome to continue sculpting. The tomb sculptures, however, were never to be finished because in 1508 the pope returned to Rome victorious and summoned Michelangelo to begin work on the ceiling. The contract was signed on 10 May 1508.

The scheme proposed by the pope was for twelve large figures of the Apostles to occupy the pendentives. However, Michelangelo negotiated for a grander, much more complex scheme and was finally permitted, in his own words, "to do as I liked".

His scheme for the ceiling eventually comprised some three hundred figures and took four years to execute, being completed and shown to the public on All Saints Day in 1512 after a preliminary showing and papal Mass on August 14, 1511. It is unknown and is the subject of much speculation among art historians whether Michelangelo was really able to "do as he liked".

Michelangelo read and reread the Old Testament while he was painting the ceiling, drawing his inspiration from the words of the scripture, rather than from the established traditions of sacral art. A total of 343 figures were painted on the ceiling.

The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art.

The ceiling is that of the Sistine Chapel, the large papal chapel built within the Vatican between 1477 and 1480 by Pope Sixtus IV, for whom the chapel is named. It was painted at the commission of Pope Julius II.

The ceiling's various painted elements form part of a larger scheme of decoration within the Chapel, which includes the large fresco The Last Judgment on the sanctuary wall, also by Michelangelo, wall paintings by several leading painters of the late 15th century including Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Pietro Perugino, and a set of large tapestries by Raphael, the whole illustrating much of the doctrine of the Catholic Church.

Central to the ceiling decoration are nine scenes from the Book of Genesis of which The Creation of Adam is the best known, having an iconic standing equaled only by Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, the hands of God and Adam being reproduced in countless imitations.

The complex design includes several sets of individual figures, both clothed and nude, which allowed Michelangelo to fully demonstrate his skill in creating a huge variety of poses for the human figure .

Michelangelo was a devout Catholic whose faith deepened at the end of his life.
He was abstemious in his personal life, and once told his apprentice, Ascanio Condivi: "However rich I may have been, I have always lived like a poor man. Condivi said he was indifferent to food and drink, eating "more out of necessity than of pleasure" and that he "often slept in his clothes and ... boots." His biographer Paolo Giovio says, "His nature was so rough and uncouth that his domestic habits were incredibly squalid, and deprived posterity of any pupils who might have followed him."He may not have minded, since he was by nature a solitary and melancholy person, bizzarro e fantastico, a man who "withdrew himself from the company of men."
Some of the most famous works by Renaissance artist Michelangelo Buonarotti are located in Rome and the Vatican City. Famous masterpieces, such as the frescoes on the Sistine Chapel, can be found in the Italian capital as can other fantastic sculptures and architectural designs.

PAINTINGS BY MICHELANGELO

1. The Sistine Chapel ceiling’s most famous panel, entitled “The Creation of Adam.”
2. Contrary to popular belief, Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel in a standing position.
When they picture Michelangelo creating his legendary frescoes, most people assume he was lying down. But in fact, the artist and his assistants used wooden scaffolds that allowed them to stand upright and reach above their heads. Michelangelo himself designed the unique system of platforms, which were attached to the walls with brackets. The impression that Michelangelo painted on his back might come from the 1965 film “The Agony and the Ecstasy,” in which Charlton Heston portrayed the genius behind the Sistine Chapel’s ceiling.

Sections of the Sistine Chapel’s ceiling.







3. Working on the Sistine Chapel was so unpleasant that Michelangelo wrote a poem about his misery.
In 1509, an increasingly uncomfortable Michelangelo described the physical strain of the Sistine Chapel project to his friend Giovanni da Pistoia. “I’ve already grown a goiter from this torture,” he wrote in a poem that was surely somewhat tongue-in-cheek. He went on to complain that his “stomach’s squashed under my chin,” that his “face makes a fine floor for droppings,” that his “skin hangs loose below me” and that his “spine’s all knotted from folding myself over.” He ended with an affirmation that he shouldn’t have changed his day job: “I am not in the right place—I am not a painter.”
4. Michelangelo’s masterpiece has proven highly resilient.
The Sistine Chapel’s frescoed ceiling has held up remarkably well in the five centuries since its completion. Only one small component is missing: part of the sky in the panel depicting Noah’s escape from the great biblical flood. The section of painted plaster fell to the floor and shattered following an explosion at a nearby gunpowder depot in 1797. Despite the ceiling’s apparent hardiness, experts worry that foot traffic from the millions of people who visit the Sistine Chapel each year continues to pose a serious threat.
5. Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel art was touched up—and stripped down—in the 1980s and 1990s.
Between 1980 and 1999, experts restored selected artwork in the Sistine Chapel, including Michelangelo’s ceiling and his famed fresco known as “The Last Judgment,” which he created in his later years. Specialists meticulously dissolved layers of grime, soot and deposits, substantially brightening the colors of the centuries-old paintings. The restoration also undid the work of Pope Pius IV, who ordered the placement of fig leaves and loincloths on Michelangelo’s nudes during the 1560s.




6. The Sistine Chapel ceiling’s most famous panel might depict a human brain.
In the section entitled “The Creation of Adam,” figures representing God and Adam reach for each other with their arms outstretched. Their almost-touching fingers are one of the world’s most recognizable and widely replicated images. Some theorists think the scene also contains the unmistakable outline of a human brain, formed by the angels and robes surrounding God. According to Frank Lynn Meshberger, a doctor who pioneered this hypothesis, Michelangelo meant to evoke God’s bestowal of intelligence on the first human.
7. New popes are elected in the Sistine Chapel.
Built in the 1470s under Pope Sixtus IV, from whom it takes its name, the Sistine Chapel is more than just Vatican City’s most popular tourist destination. In fact, it serves a crucial religious function. Beginning in 1492, the simple brick building has hosted numerous papal conclaves, during which cardinals gather to vote on a new pope. A special chimney in the roof of the chapel broadcasts the conclave’s results, with white smoke indicating the election of a pope and black smoke signaling that no candidate has yet received a two-thirds majority.

Madonna and Child
The Madonna of the Steps is Michelangelo's earliest known work in marble. It is carved in shallow . While the Madonna is in profile, the easiest aspect for a shallow relief, the child displays a twisting motion that was to become characteristic of Michelangelo's . Here, the Christ Child, restrained by his mother's clasping hand, is about to step off into the world.


Madonna and Child. Bruges, Belgium (1504)


The Creation of Adam

In the pictures, and one of the most widely recognised images in the history of painting, Michelangelo shows God reaching out to touch Adam, who, in the words of Vasari, is "a figure whose beauty, pose and contours are such that it seems to have been fashioned that very moment by the first and supreme creator rather than by the drawing and brush of a mortal man." From beneath the sheltering arm of God, Eve looks out, a little apprehensively. The "glory" of God, represented by a dark shaded area around him, has the same anatomical geometry as a human brain.
The central scene, of God creating Eve from the side of the sleeping Adam has been taken in its composition directly from another Creation sequence, the relief panels that surround the door of the Basilica of San Petronio, Bologna by Jacopo della Quercia whose work Michelangelo had studied in his youth.
In the final panel of this sequence Michelangelo combines two contrasting scenes into one panel,that of Adam and Eve taking fruit from the forbidden tree, Eve trustingly taking it from the hand of the Serpent and Adam eagerly picking it for himself; and their banishment from the Garden of Eden, where they have lived in the company of God, to the world outside where they have to fend for themselves and experience death.

Michelangelo in Florence


CITY OF FLORENCE 

Born and raised in Tuscany, Michelangelo Buonarotti has long been associated with the city of Florence, which holds a small trove of many of his masterpieces. Florence is where you will find the sculpture of David, which is one of the great icons of Renaissance art, as well as numerous sculptures, architectural projects, and a painting from the Italian artist. Here is a list of Michelangelo's great works - and where to find them - in
Michelangelo's Art in the Galleria dell'Accademia


DAVID AT MICHELANGELO POINT IN FLORENCE 

The Galleria dell'Accademia houses the original sculpture of David, considered one of Michelangelo's finest works of art. David once stood in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence's City Hall, as a symbol of the city's independence. There are now copies of David in front of the Palazzo Vecchio and in the center of Piazzale Michelangelo, a hilltop square famous for its panorama of Florence.

SANTA MARIA AT PIAZZALE IN FLORENCE 

A few other Michelangelo works reside in the Accademia. They are "The Four Prisoners," a marble group designed for the tomb of Pope Julius II, and a statue of Saint Matthew.



Michelangelo's Art in Palazzo Vecchio
Florence's City Hall is the site of yet another Michelangelo sculpture, "The Genius of Victory." But it is also where Michelangelo was to paint a monumental "Battle of Cascina." This painting was never initiated, though some art historians believe it may be "lost."




DAVID 

The Piazza della Signoria is top among Florence's most important squares. In the heart of the city, dominated by city hall - the Palazzo Vecchio - and skimmed by one wing of the Uffizi Gallery, the Piazza della Signoria is Florence's primary meeting place for both locals and tourists. Several concerts, fairs, and rallies are held in the Piazza della Signoria throughout the year.
Florence's most famous square started to take shape in the mid- to late-13th century when the Guelphs defeated the Ghibellines for control of the Florence.


The piazza's L shape and the lack of uniformity of its surrounding buildings is the result of the Guelphs leveling many of their rivals' palazzi. The piazza gets its name from the towering Palazzo Vecchio, whose original name is the Palazzo della Signoria.

Numerous statues designed by some of the most famous Florentine artists decorate the square and the adjacent Loggia dei Lanzi, which serves as an outdoor sculpture gallery. Almost all of the statues located on the square are copies; the originals have been moved indoors, including to the Palazzo Vecchio and the Bargello, for preservation. The most famous of the piazza's sculptures is a copy of Michelangelo's David (the original is in the Accademia), which stands watch outside the Palazzo Vecchio. Other must-see sculptures on the square include Baccio Bandinelli's Heracles and Cacus, two statues by Giambologna - the equestrian statue of Grand Duke Cosimo I and Rape of a Sabine – and Cellini's Perseus and Medusa.


 At the center of the piazza is the Neptune Fountain designed by Ammanati. Here's what to see inside Palazzo Vecchio.
Besides the statues and the buildings that circle it, Piazza della Signoria is perhaps best known as the site of the infamous Bonfire of the Vanities of 1497, during which followers of the radical Dominican friar Savonarola burned thousands of objects (books, paintings, musical instruments, etc.) 
ordered-list__counter-rail Sandro 
end figure Sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti's artistry is on display on the north and east doors of the Baptistery, considered to be the oldest building in Florence. Check out the beautiful replicas of Ghiberti's bronze doors, particularly the panels on the east doors, also known as the "Gates of Paradise," then head to the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, the museum that houses many original artworks associated with Florence's Duomo, to see the real thing




The symbol of Florence, the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (aka il Duomo), is distinct for its soaring red brick dome visible from miles around. This amazing feat of engineering and artistic elegance is thanks to Filippo Brunelleschi. While Brunelleschi is best known for his dome, he also had a hand in the design of several other buildings in Florence, including the Basilicas of San Lorenzo and Santo.




Few artists have left such a deep and enduring mark in art history like the one left by Michelangelo Buonarroti. Born in Tuscany in a small town near Arezzo, above the Casentino valley, near La Verna Michelangelo was quickly whisked off towards Florence and in particular Settignano where due to his mother’s poor health he had a wet nurse. Michelangelo would often tease that he received more than milk from his nurse, absorbing her family’s tradition: stone carving.


Though having spent the majority of his life in Rome, Michelangelo considered himself a Florentine, and it is in Florence where many of the artist's masterpieces are proudly on exhibition. Exploring the city of Michelangelo means retracing the steps of his artistic experience and visiting places inextricably linked to his memory.

The proposed itinerary will show you both some of the most famous works of the great artist and some of the most important monuments of Florence. We suggest you read through this article and use it as a reference as you explore the many wonders of Florence.  We hope you have fun identifying as many as possible of these perfect masterpieces by Michelangelo.


Start at CASA BUONARROTI
Michelangelo created some of his most famous works of art, the Pietà in Rome and the David in Florence before he was even 30 years old?! Truly a man born with creative genius in his blood.
To better understand the evolution of Michelangelo Buonarroti’s style, we will first head to Casa Buonarroti, situated in the vibrant and picturesque district of Santa Croce. Despite the name, Casa Buonarroti (House of Buonarroti) is not the place where the artist lived. The palace was built by his beloved nephew, Leonardo, and it passed from one generation to another until the extinction of the family.
TOWER IN PIZZALE

It houses two pieces which the great artist sculpted in his twenties - both are in the style of a bas-relief: the Battle of the Centaurs and the Madonna della Scala. The first would not have been possible without the knowledge of the classical statuary which he acquired while studying at the Garden of San Marco as a young teenager (the open air academy sponsored by the Medici family). The second is a clear homage to great sculptor Donatello.
Next stop SANTO SPIRITO

If we are following a chronological itinerary, then we can admire the work of a young Michelangelo at the church of Santo Spirito.
Situated in the popular district of Oltrarno, the church Santo Spirito is one of the most beautiful Renaissance churches in Florence. It is here where Michelangelo, as a young man, found shelter as an artist after the death of his patron Lorenzo de’ Medici, known as the Magnificent, in 1492.


While at Santo Spirito, Michelangelo was granted permission by the Prior to dissect the corpses of the nearby hospital to learn more about the human body and translated it into his artwork. To show his appreciation for this unusual experience, he carved a touching wooden Crucifix in 1493.
The cross is a unique image of Christ as a frail teenage body, most certainly inspired by the many corpses of young men he saw at the hospital. It represents a sad and introspective allegory of human weakness facing death.
Head Over to BARGELLO...

After the riots that forced the Medici family to go into exile in 1494, Michelangelo lost his patrons and moved to Rome. Though perhaps most well known for his frescos at the Vatican, it was in Rome that he sculpted the famous Pietà in St. Peter and the Bacchus now at the Bargello Museum in Florence.
The rooms on the ground floor of this wonderful museum exhibit Tuscan 16th century works, focusing in particular on four masterpieces by Michelangelo (1475-1564) such as the Bacchus and Brutus.  Here you will also find the Tondo Pitti (also known as the Madonna and Child).  The tondo or round shape was typical of art for the home, and many times wealthy families would have one in their homes.
The fourth piece is David / Apollo. The last piece was created for Baccio Valori, a Medici ally and the Governor of Florence, around 1530 and due to the unfinished status of the marble carving there appears to be some doubt as to who it should present.
...then on to the ACCADEMIA

He returned to Florence in 1501, where he created some of his most famous masterpieces, inlcluding the magnificent David, now at the Accademia Gallery. This masterpiece is carved from a block of marble which remained neglected for 25 years, after two attempts at “finding” the Davide inside by previous artists it was finally given to Michelangelo, who at only 26 years of age, convinced the Florentine government to let him finish the work thus leaving us today with an undisputable masterpiece.
“Non-finito” (or Incomplete)
The common theory is that Michelangelo left many sculptures incomplete because he was unsatisfied with the development...though there are some who suggest that a great artist could abandon his work because the idea was more important than the finished results thus he did it on purpose to leave them in an “unfinished” state.
Many other statues by the great artist are displayed at the Accademia. These works are “non-finito” sculptures and the figures appear the be stuck within the marble block, struggling to come out. We will be astonished by the “non finito” statue of St. Matthew, made for the Cathedral of Florence, or the famous Prigioni, a marble group planned for the for the tomb of Pope Julius II in Rome. To learn more about the Prisoners and Michelangelo's style, read this page.
A Change of Styles at the UFFIZI



During his stay in Florence between 1501-1504, Michelangelo accomplished another masterpiece: the Tondo Doni, which is displayed today at the Uffizi Art Gallery. Unknown to many, this was his first painting on canvas and the only work of this kind in Florence.
Stop at PALAZZO VECCHIO


The Genius of Victory is another statue conceived for one of the many versions of the tomb of Pope Julius II in Rome and displayed in the Palazzo Vecchio (or Palazzo della Signoria), inside the magnificent Salone dei Cinquecento.
This statue was placed in Palazzo Vecchio after the death of Michelangelo, when Vasari pressured the artist’s nephew to “gift” it to to Duke Cosimo I de' Medici who used it to symbolize Florence's conquest of Siena.
Walk over to SAN LORENZO

In the meantime, from 1515 to 1534, two members of the Medici family became popes: Leo X and Clement VIII, respectively son and grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
The two popes commissioned Michelangelo to build the Sagrestia Nuova in the Medici Chapels and the Laurentian Library for the Basilica of San Lorenzo. These are both excellent examples Michelangelo’s diverse skills, since he was the architect and artist behind both - and even if he left Florence before either was finished both are credited to him. Michelangelo's work showed an innovate use of space which was considered revolutionary for its time.
Though not open to the public, this chuch is home to the "secret room" just to the left of the Sacrestia Nuova where Michelangelo escaped for three months during the last stages of the Spanish seige against Florence. Only 7 meters long and 2 meters wide, in 1530 Michelangelo covered the walls with sketches and designs while he waited out the attack of the city above.
Last stop: OPERA DEL DUOMO

Though Michelangelo’s spirit and genius will forever walk the streets of Florence and be on display throughout the city, for our itinerary this is the last stop. The last work is the dramatic Pietà Bandini, carved in Rome in 1550 to decorate his tomb. It is now housed in the recently restored Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. This sculpture is one of the most interesting masterpiece by the great master displayed in the Tuscan capital. The pathos of the composition is palpable. What adds a special significance to this work is the self-portrait of Michelangelo in the likeness of Nicodemus, the male figure holding the lifeless body of Christ flanked by Mary and Magdalene.
The tour ends therefore at Piazza del Duomo. To learn more about the historical events behind the works mentioned above, you can read the biography of Michelangelo Buonarroti. The in-depth article provides further details about the long.

He wrote over three hundred sonnets and madrigals.

I feel as lit by fire a cold countenance
That burns me from afar and keeps itself ice-chill;
A strength I feel two shapely arms to fill
Which without motion moves every balance.
— (Michael Sullivan, translation)

He was in love with Cavalieri who wrote to him ,  "I swear to return your love. Never have I loved a man more than I love you, never have I wished for a friendship more than I wish for yours." Cavalieri remained devoted to Michelangelo until his death.

Late in life, Michelangelo nurtured a great platonic love for the poet and noble widow Vittoria Colonna, whom he met in Rome in 1536 or 1538 and who was in her late forties at the time. They wrote sonnets for each other and were in regular contact until she died. These sonnets mostly deal with the spiritual issues that occupied them. Condivi recalls Michelangelo's saying that his sole regret in life was that he did not kiss the widow's face in the same manner that he had her hand.


Thursday, August 3, 2017

ओळख सियाचेनची

ग्रंथालीने प्रकाशित केलेले अनुराधा गोरे ह्यांचे ' ओळख सियाचेनची ' हे पुस्तक हाती आले . थोडेसे चाळले आणि लक्षात आले की हे पुस्तक वाचायलाच हवे . मला हिमालयाची ओढ आहे . तो मला सारखा खुणावत असतो . मनाली ते लेह हा प्रवास केला तेव्हा हिमालयाची विविध रूपे पाहीली . लेह ते नुब्रा व्हॅली हा प्रवास तर अवर्णनीय होता. नुब्रा व्हॅलीला सियाचेनच्या प्रवेश द्वारापर्यंत गेलो तेव्हाच सियाचेनला जाणे किती कठीण असेल ह्याची कल्पना आली होती . उन्हाळ्यात बर्फ वितळल्यावर नुब्रा व्हॅलीला जाणेच इतके कर्म कठीण . अलीकडे बीएसएफ मुळे रस्ते आहेत आणि सैनिकी चौक्या आहेत म्हणून तरी ह्या भागात प्रवास करता येतो . गिर्यारोहकांचे ठीक आहे . आपल्यासारख्या सामान्य प्रवाशाला हा सर्व प्रवास करणे तसे अशक्यच . १२ महिने सियाचेन ह्या ८० किलोमीटर लांब व २० हजार फूट उंचीवरील हिमनदीवर चौकी करून पहारा करणे किती कठीण . त्याचीच कहाणी सांगणारे हे पुस्तक . एका बाजूला पाकिस्तान आणि दुसऱ्या बाजूला चीन असलेला हा काराकोरम पर्वतीय प्रदेश . आपण हिमालयापासून कन्याकुमारीपर्यंत असं भारताचे वर्णन करतो . त्या ऐवजी काराकोरम ते कन्याकुमारीपर्यंत असंच म्हणायला पाहिजे . सियाचेन हा भारताचा उत्तरेकडील सर्वात शेवटचा भू प्रदेश .
काश्मीर प्रश्नाचा गुंता १९४७ पासून सुटलेला नाहीच .ह्या पुस्तकात काश्मीर प्रश्नाचा इतिहास इतका व्यवस्थित मांडला आहे की जो वाचल्यानंतर आपल्या राज्यकर्त्यांनी केलेल्या असंख्य चुकांमुळे हा प्रश्न आज अधिकच गुंतागुंतीचा झाला आहे हे लक्षात येते .


१९४७ साली पाकिस्तानची निर्मिती झाल्यानंतर पाकिस्तानच्या सैनिकांनी ब्रिटिश सेनाधिकारी ह्यांच्या सहकार्याने गिलगिट - कारगिल ह्या सिंधू नदीच्या आजूबाजूने दौड करीत लेह काबीज केले होते . त्यावेळी आपले दिल्लीश्वर गाफीलच राहिले होते आणि जीनांच्या आक्रमक लष्करी कारवाया चालूच होत्या . काश्मीरचा हिंदू राजा हरिसिंग जेव्हा हतबल झाला तेव्हा मदतीसाठी धावला पण शेख अब्दुल्ला स्वतंत्र काश्मीरचे स्वप्न बघत दोन्ही डग्र्यावर पाय रोवित होते .ह्या पुस्तकातील एका प्रकरणात काश्मीरचा सर्व इतिहास संक्षेपाने लिहिला आहे . तो वाचणे आणि समजून घेणे फार महत्वाचे आहे . हा इतिहास जितका महत्वाचा आहे तितकाच ह्या भागाचा भूगोल . काश्मीर - सियाचेन - लेह लडाख - अकसाई चीन ह्या भूभागाची पूर्ण माहिती समजून घेतल्याशिवाय तेथील लष्करी कारवाई समजणे अवघड आहे . हा ह्या पुस्तकाचा मुख्य विषय आहे . अतिशय अभ्यासपूर्ण माहिती असलेले हे पुस्तक वाचल्यानंतर आपल्याला आपल्या संरक्षण प्रश्नाविषयी अधिक जाण होते . वेळ काढून अवश्य वाचावे असे हे पुस्तक .
आपल्या सेनाधिकाऱ्याला रस्त्यावरचा गुंड म्हणणारे माजी संसद सदस्य व अनेक वर्षे राज्य करणारा त्यांचा पक्ष . ह्या लोकांना ह्या भागातील संरक्षणाच्या प्रश्नांची जाण नसल्यामुळेच ते अशी विधाने करतात हे आपले दुर्भाग्य . त्यांनाच शत्रूच्या तोफेच्या तोंडी देण्यासाठी सियाचीनच्या चौकीवर पाठवले म्हणजे कळेल लष्करी नेतृत्व म्हणजे काय असते ते ?
ह्या पुस्तकावर विस्ताराने खूप लिहिण्यासारखे आहे . वेळ काढून वाचा एव्हढेच सांगावेसे वाटते . ह्या पुस्तकाचा इंग्रजी आणि हिंदी अनुवाद झाला तर ते अधिक लोकांपर्यंत पोहचेल असे वाटते .